Among all types of decorative plaster, Venetian is the most luxurious, it has the effect of a real marble surface. It is a more budget-friendly option compared to finishing with real marble. Venetian plaster in the interior emphasizes the richness and style of the room. However, it is quite difficult to achieve a stunning result without having the skills to work with a Venetian blind, it requires the time-honed skills of a professional craftsman.
In the interior
Venetian plaster has a rich appearance, so it will not be appropriate in every interior. Due to its strength and beauty, it has found application in finishing public buildings, business centers, hotels and restaurants. It looks great in luxurious halls with a sufficient amount of natural and (or) artificial lighting. Emphasizes the richness of the interior.
If we talk about apartments and houses, then Venetian plaster looks great in classic, baroque, empire, vintage style interiors. In the art deco style, the use of reflective plaster is suitable, and in the loft style – with the effect of aging. Basically, the Venetian blind is used to arrange a room in the spirit of medieval Europe. If we talk about modern styles, then its use is permissible, but with the right color. So, a marble surface of white pastel or matte color is suitable for hi-tech style.
As a rule, walls in spacious rooms are lined with Venetian plaster, supplemented with various panels, frescoes, and paintings. But even in small rooms, the wreath can be used. Thus, using light shades and the effect of translucency of the material, you can visually enlarge the room.
Modern compositions of Venetian plaster tolerate high humidity and temperature changes well, prevent the appearance of mold and easily wash off dirt. These features were used in bathroom and kitchen decoration.
Pros and cons
Undisputed advantages of Venetian plaster include:
- The effect of a marble monolithic surface.
- Moisture resistance. Thanks to the use of wax as a finishing layer, the surface of the marble plaster becomes completely waterproof.
- Ease of care. This plus follows from the previous one. The surface of the venetian blind can be easily washed from dirt with both water and soapy solutions. But it is better not to use solvents.
- Durability. Finishing material can last up to 10 years.
- Fire Security.
- Absence of unpleasant odors.
- Environmental friendliness.
Despite all the advantages, this material has its disadvantages. But they are not related to operational characteristics, but to the peculiarities of applying Venetian plaster. It requires a perfectly flat wall surface and a highly qualified plasterer. The process of its application is quite delicate and painstaking work. Not only that appropriate skills are required, but also the processing time is spent several times more than when working with ordinary plaster. It should also be noted the high price of Venetian plaster compared to other finishing materials.
The main component of Venetian plaster is small particles of natural stone (flour, dust, crumbs). Marble, granite, limestone, onyx, quartz, malachite and other types can be used for these purposes. The composition depends on the desired effect. Stone dust is mixed with a substance (water emulsion and slaked lime) to the consistency of sour cream and in this form is applied to the surface of the wall. In addition, the composition of Venetian plaster can include organic and inorganic pigments, which are designed to protect the coating from negative external influences, for example, ultraviolet rays.
It should be noted that in addition to direct plaster, another layer is used for finishing – natural beeswax. It performs the function of moisture and dust protection. Also, wax, impregnating all layers of Venetian plaster, gives it additional shine and saturation of colors.
A feature of Venetian plaster is the imitation of marble, which can have a different effect depending on the composition of the material. There are four main types of Venetian plaster:
- Veneto (Vèneto). The most common and economical version of the Venetian blind. It has the effect of polished marble with a matte finish. Relatively easy to apply and care for. It has high wear resistance, so it is used in public buildings with high traffic.
- Trevignano (Trevignano). It has the effect of a mirror-like marble surface, similar to travertine rock, illuminated from within. It is distinguished by a polymer base, and translucent layers of many color shades (up to several hundred) are used for application. It is used to decorate the walls of luxurious halls in baroque or vintage style, the aristocracy of the created interior is complemented by frescoes.
- Marbella (Marbella). It has the effect of rough-hewn marble with a velvety surface. With different lighting, a different color perception of the finish is achieved. Contains copolymer additives, thanks to which it has high moisture-protective properties.
- Encausto (Encausto). This Venetian plaster looks like granite with a semi-matte surface.
Materials and preparation
To begin, prepare all the necessary tools. To apply Venetian plaster, you need:
- Steel graters. They will level and rub the solution.
- Special spatulas with rounded edges and a flat surface. There should be no defects or scratches. Prepare two spatulas, one wide for the main wall and one smaller for heavy areas.
- Trowel or roller for applying plaster to the wall.
- Flat felt brush.
- A paint brush with thick bristles.
- Roulette, level, metal ruler.
- Grinding skin of small fraction.
- Painter’s tape.
The final result depends on the quality of the preparatory work. Preparing the wall for Venetian plaster is very important, it must be perfectly even. Any chips, irregularities, cracks will immediately catch the eye. No matter what the base of the wall is, it must be cleaned of dust and dirt. After all the cracks and visible defects have been smeared and polished, continuous puttying is performed. When the wall dries, it is sanded with pumice stone or peel, then blown or wiped with a dry cloth to remove all small particles of construction debris. The clean surface is primed and puttyed again, sanded and primed. If the wall is still not smooth enough, then the procedure is repeated again, it is necessary to wait for the surface to dry completely after each stage.
They check the quality of putty with the help of bright side lighting. For this, a powerful lantern or a table lamp with a reflector is placed against the wall and the light is directed almost parallel to it. All defects and irregularities, height differences will be marked with shading.
And only after achieving the ideal result, the finishing putty is applied, after which, after drying, the wall is covered with a “zero” peel. At the end, the wall is opened several times with a primer of deep penetration.
Before starting the work, the wall is pasted with painter’s tape, so that the plaster does not go beyond its limits, otherwise if it dries, it will be difficult to remove it from these areas, and cracks and chips will definitely appear. Peel off the painter’s tape immediately after applying the treatment, while it has not yet dried.
The surface of the wall is divided into sections of 0.5-1 square meters. Apply the material step by step in small portions, as it sets very quickly. Work from one area to another, and when leveling, slightly grab the borders of neighboring areas.
The plaster is distributed according to the method “from dry to wet”, that is, a new portion of the material is applied “on top of” the already distributed one.
Classical Venetian plaster is applied in the following way:
- The first layer is the base layer. It sets the tone for the future treatment, is applied continuously. The trowel is held at an angle of 15 degrees, close to the surface. Plaster is applied in a thin layer, no more than 3 mm, in an arc, without sharp joints under straight lines. Excess material is carefully removed with a spatula. The first layer dries for 6-8 hours (see instructions on the package).
- The second layer gives a glossy effect. The layer is applied with brushstrokes, on which the future texture of the wall depends. The more chaotic the strokes, the more interesting the appearance. After application, the plaster is smoothed with a trowel and left to dry. It is necessary to work quickly, since the material sets quickly, and its delayed leveling can lead to the appearance of cracks.
- Tools for applying plaster must always be clean, without dried areas of the solution, otherwise the surface will be scratched, so keep a basin of water and dry rags ready.
- The third layer adds various visual effects. Thus, you can use plaster of several colors so that characteristic veins form on the marble surface. The solution is applied in wavy strokes, straight and solid layers are avoided.
- There can be more layers. All of them, except the first one, are responsible for creating the proper effect, pattern, drawing. A novice will hardly be able to do such a delicate work, but experienced craftsmen are able to create real masterpieces, using up to 9 layers of Venetian plaster, each of which makes the finish deeper and more effective.
- After the final drying of the applied plaster, the surface of the wall is sanded with fine-grained sandpaper. All flaws are eliminated and corrected at this stage, since nothing can be corrected after applying the wax.
- The last stage, which is performed a week after applying the Venetian plaster, is the treatment of the surface with wax. It is applied with a sponge, a woolen glove or a rubber spatula. Then the surface is polished with a soft cloth. Depending on the type of plaster, the next wax polishing is performed after 1-3 years.