Light-emitting diode lamps (LED lamps), which first appeared on the market in 1998, were unanimously recognized as lighting devices of a new generation. Innovative light sources have such obvious advantages over incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps that it is surprising that most consumers have not yet switched to alternative devices.

Analysts believe that the only barrier is the high price of products, and this is really the main point. But there are a number of other significant factors that cannot be ignored.

In order to draw objective conclusions about the expediency of using LEDs in everyday life, at industrial or commercial facilities, the main characteristics of LED lamps should be considered, at least in the most simplified form. An ordinary consumer, who is not a specialist in the field of electricity, should understand why he prefers one or another type of lighting.

Technical characteristics of LED lamps

Characteristics of lighting devices

When comparing light sources, experts consider the values ​​of the following indicators:

  • power;
  • luminous flux;
  • light temperature;
  • supply voltage;
  • operating conditions (temperature range, degree of protection, adaptation to the communication system, etc.).

These are priority characteristics, in addition to which a number of other parameters are taken into account, which will be mentioned below.


This is an indicator that reflects the amount of electricity consumption per unit of time.

On the packaging of LED lamps, unusually low power values ​​(from 3 to 17 W) are indicated, but this fact does not affect the brightness of the light in any way.

For a rough comparison, the following example can be given – if we multiply the power indicator of the Led source by 7, we will get a number corresponding to the power of an incandescent lamp (a 9-12 W LED device corresponds to a 75-100 W incandescent lamp, an energy-saving one – 24 W).

The power on the packages of branded foreign goods is indicated by the letter symbols W or P.

Light flux

A parameter that indicates the power of radiation created by a light source (measured in lumens, denoted Lm). It is important for the buyer to know that an LED lamp with an indicator of 600 Lm can be used to replace an incandescent lamp with a power of 60 W.

Calculation of the energy efficiency of an LED lamp

Energy efficiency is scientifically based energy consumption. The lower the energy consumption to provide lighting that meets current standards (ergonomics, ecology, sanitary hygiene), the higher the energy efficiency indicator.

The calculation is based on the formula: the luminous flux indicator is divided by the power of the light source.

The energy efficiency of a Led lamp with a luminous flux of 200 Lm and a power of 5 W is 40 Lm / W (for an incandescent lamp with similar parameters, this characteristic is 10 Lm / W), that is, the energy efficiency of an LED source is 4 times higher than that of a traditional lamp

Light temperature

Light temperature – scale of shades of glow, according to Kelvin. The color temperature of 6000 Kelvin corresponds to the shade of sunlight during the day. In everyday life, lamps with an indicator of 2600-3100 K are most often used – the color temperature of evening sunlight, which is most comfortably perceived by a person.

You can choose the appropriate shade according to the parameter matching table and the color scale, which indicates the shades created by the light source. There are a lot of them – several shades of white, blue, yellow. Lamps with indicators of 7000K (cold daylight) are used in office halls, banks, shopping centers, and other public buildings. The optimal color rendering index is the maximum value close to 100 (97 and 98 are a good indicator, 100 is ideal).

Degree of protection

An indicator reflecting the level of product protection against environmental factors guaranteed by the manufacturer. The value is indicated by the symbols IP and the following two numbers. The first number (from 0 to 6) shows the degree of protection against dust and mechanical particles, respectively, 0 – no protection, 6 – maximum protection. The second characteristic is resistance to moisture (from 0 to 8, and the last number guarantees protection of the device when immersed in water for a long time).

LED lamps with IP 21 indicators are quite suitable for home rooms, and IP 44 and higher should be chosen for bathrooms.

Supply voltage

Most LED lamps operate from direct current, with a supply voltage of 4 V. The total voltage of the LEDs in the lighting device rarely exceeds 60 V, while electrical networks, on average, give 100-240 V alternating current. To bring the parameters of the network and the LEDs into the matching mode, it is necessary to use a power supply unit, or, as this device is called today, a “driver”.

The main task of the driver (power supply unit) is to convert the voltage, stabilize and rectify the current, and (in some cases) regulate the light flux. LED lamps, chandeliers, panels are sold complete with these devices.

Dimmers, which create powerful light pulses (with low pulses, the light bulb burns dimly), are a separate device that regulates the intensity of the light flow.

Operating temperature range

Exact data on this account do not exist. The manufacturer guarantees preservation of operating characteristics in the range from – 40 to + 40 degrees (Celsius), although LED lighting sources are successfully used in harsh climatic conditions, where the temperature drops below 50 degrees.

This indicator is not important when using devices in households, industrial workshops or offices.


Pulsating light has a negative effect on the organs of vision and the nervous system. There is no noticeable pulsation in ordinary incandescent lamps, so the lighting is perceived comfortably.

In LED lamps, the pulsation depends on the quality of the assembly of the technical device.

In branded devices equipped with network drivers, the ripple value is only 0.3% (for example, Ledcraft or Navigator lamps). Instead, cheap Chinese lamps can pulse with a factor of 80-90%! Conclusion – you cannot buy goods from unverified manufacturers, without certificates and documentation of the supplier company. This will lead to unjustified costs, and, certainly, to the absence of the result that the buyer was hoping for.

LED lamp against incandescence

Base and bulb

The most common sockets are E 14 and E 27 formats, and GU5.3 and GU10 for lamps with a directed flow of light. GX53 base – for lamps built into suspended ceiling systems and furniture, E40 – for street lighting, landscape lights, large rooms.

The bulb of the LED lamp, corresponding to the shape of the incandescent lamp, has the conventional designation A60, the base is E27. Lamps in the shape of a ball or a candle (symbols P45 and C 37) with a U 14 base are also produced. These modifications are installed in chandeliers and decorative lamps. Light sources with R50 and R63 bulbs are used in the soffits.

A little about the cons

So, an LED lamp is an economical, energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, safe device with a long service life (manufacturers guarantee 5 years, but in fact LEDs function for a long time, which, according to the developers, varies in the range of 50-100 thousand hours) .

The downside is not only the high price, which everyone already knows about. There are other shortcomings that are least evident in high-quality products of European and domestic production. This is an uneven distribution of the light flux in the room (point lighting), a cold shade, the complexity of the structural device (the presence of a cooling system, a driver, a dimmer is necessary).

For the efficient functioning of the LED lamp, the technical base should be prepared so that all parameters of the power grid correspond to the indicators of the light source. In some cases, it is necessary to change old plinths and wiring.

Another important point – in low-quality lamps, the LED crystal degrades quite quickly, so after a couple of years the lighting will become dim, indistinct, which causes irritation.

When buying high-quality light sources from such reputable manufacturers as Philips (Netherlands), Osram (Austria), Cree (Denmark), Gauss (Russia), you can be sure that you are buying quality products. However, to make such a difficult decision, it is better to use the help of professionals who are well aware of the features of the products of this group and will be able to fully take into account the requirements of the buyer. With a qualified approach, you can always find a compromise between quality and price. As for obtaining a significant economic benefit when switching to LED lighting devices, this is an obvious fact.

Technical characteristics of LED lamps

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